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Spanish History in Brief -

1100 B.C.

Phoenician traders establish colony at Cadiz in southern Iberia.

228 B.C.

Carthaginians occupy southern and eastern Iberia.

218-220 B.C..

Romans defeats Carthage in Second Punic War and occupy Iberian peninsula.

74

Inhabitants of Iberia are granted full Roman citizenship.

409

Visigoth's occupy Iberian peninsula.

711

Combined Arab and Berber force from northern Africa cross Strait of Gibraltar to occupy Iberian peninsula.

756

Independent Emirate is established in Iberia, with Córdoba as its capital

913

Having re-taken territories in northern Spain, Christians establish capital in León.

1013

Powerful Caliphate of Córdoba breaks up due to internal strife; Moorish Spain split into small feuding kingdoms.

1212

Decisive Christian victory at battle of Navas de Tolosa spells the beginning of the end of Moorish rule in Spain.

1492

King Fernando and Queen Isabel's army capture Granada after a long siege, the final defeat of the Moors in Spain. Jews are forced to convert to Christianity; those who refuse are expelled from Spain. Christopher Columbus sets sail on his voyage of discovery.

1702-14

War of Spanish Succession. Bourbon dynasty accedes to Spanish throne.

1808-14

Peninsular War. Spaniards rise against Napoleon's occupying force. Combination of guerilla tactics and support from Wellington's army end in French defeat.

1898

Spanish American War. Spain loses Cuba and Philippines.

1931

Spanish king is forced to abdicate. Spain becomes a republic.

1936-39

Spanish Civil War. Bloody conflict ends with General Franco's victory. Dictatorship established.

1975

Franco dies, Juan Carlos de Borbón (grandson of the last monarch) is proclaimed king. Spain becomes constitutional monarchy.

1982

Spain joins NATO, becoming a member of a mainstream European organization.

1995

Spain joins the European Union.

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